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  • Assists in weight loss1,2,3
  • Aids in lowering blood glucose levels4,5,6
  • May reduce the chance of cognitive decline and dementia7,8,9
  • May decrease the likelihood of developing colon and pancreatic cancer10,11,12
  • May lower the risk of large blood vessel disease13,14,15
  • Targets a number of aging-related mechanisms, and has demonstrated protective effects against several age-related diseases16,17,18

Background & History

Metformin was originally developed from natural compounds found in the plant Galega officinalis, known as French lilac or goat’s rue in the 1920’s. It gained popularity as a medication in France in 1957 and the United States in 1995. Metformin is now the most widely used medication for diabetes and it’s gaining even more popularity for its potential off-label benefits of anti-aging. Metformin is considered very safe, effective, and cost-effective with a history of being used for over 60 years.

Taking the Medication and Side Effects

Metformin is an oral tablet that is taken once a day for the extended-release formulation. It is recommended to start at the lowest dose (metformin ER 500mg once daily) and increase the dose as tolerated. The most common side effect is diarrhea; however, the extended-release tablet reduces the likelihood of experiencing unpleasant symptoms. Metformin reduces vitamin B-12 levels, so it is highly recommended to take a vitamin B-12 supplement. A medication guide and pharmacy consultation will be provided upon receiving this medication.


  • Slows aging in human skin1,2,3
  • Maintains brain function heart function, and physical strength4,5,6
  • Increases longevity7,8,9
  • Helps prevent age-related disease10,11,12, 15, 16

Background & History

Rapamycin, also known as sirolimus, was discovered in Easter Island from a sample of bacteria called Streptomyces hygroscopicus. It was named rapamycin after the native name of the island, Rapa Nui. Rapamycin is known inhibit mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin), a protein complex that regulates cell metabolism and growth and can have potential longevity benefits. In the early 2000s, it was found that sirolimus significantly extended the lifespan of worms, yeast, flies and mice. Rapamycin has been shown to extend lifespan in various organisms by preventing cancer growth and possibly slowing down aging mechanisms. It is believed that rapamycin’s role in longevity is related to its ability to enhance autophagy, a process that resolves damage to cellular organs and protects cells from stress.

Taking the Medication and Side Effects

Rapamycin is an oral tablet that is taken once a week. Rapamycin may increase cholesterol levels and lower potassium levels so it is recommended to complete blood work to monitor these levels. Also, taking a cholesterol lowing medication such as a statin and a vitamin K supplement will help. Other common side effects are in increased blood pressure, constipation, edema, and joint pain. A medication guide and pharmacy consultation will be provided upon receiving this medication.

NAD+ (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide)


  • Improves energy levels, mental clarity, and mood1,2
  • Effective in reducing cravings and fatigue5
  • Improves post-workout recovery9
  • Better quality of sleep6,10,11,12
  • More Effective DNA repair3,13,14,15
  • Decreases skin damage16,17,18
  • Potential weight loss19,20,21
  • Improves heart function22,23,24
  • Improves immune system25,26,27

Background & History

NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is a coenzyme found in all living cells that plays a crucial role in many biological processes, including energy production, DNA repair, and gene expression. NAD+ levels naturally decline with age, and this decline has been associated with a variety of age-related diseases and conditions. By increasing the levels of NAD+ in the body, this therapy has been shown to improve mitochondrial function, enhance cellular energy production, and boost DNA repair mechanisms. Currently, there are over 1,000 clinical trials investigating the role of NAD+ in preventing and treating disease.

Taking the Medication and Side Effects

NAD+ comes in a vial and is injected subcutaneously into a fatty layer of the skin such as the abdomen or back of the arm 1-3 times a week. Injecting NAD+ allows it to circulate into the bloodstream much faster and is a very effective way to administer the medication. NAD+ is very safe and well tolerated with minimal side effects. The most common side effect is irritation where the injection occurred and an anti-itch cream such as hydrocortisone will help to reduce irritation. A medication guide and pharmacy consultation will be provided upon receiving this medication.

Research Articles

(1) Metformin: Mechanisms in Human Obesity and Weight Loss. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6520185/.

(2) Metformin: Mechanisms in Human Obesity and Weight Loss. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30874963/.

(3) Metformin: Mechanisms in Human Obesity and Weight Loss. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13679-019-00335-3.

(4) Mechanism of glucose-lowering by metformin in type 2 diabetes https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31468642/.

(5) Metformin acutely lowers blood glucose levels by inhibition of …. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6468119/.

(6) Quantifying the Effect of Metformin Treatment and Dose on Glycemic …. https://diabetesjournals.org/care/article/35/2/446/38481/Quantifying-the-Effect-of-Metformin-Treatment-and.

(7) Metformin and Dementia Risk: A Systematic Review with Respect to Time …. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9484147/.

(8) Association of metformin use with Alzheimer’s disease in … https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-03406-5.

(9) Metformin Use Is Associated With Slowed Cognitive Decline and … – https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32967921/.

(10) The Potential Effect of Metformin on Cancer: An Umbrella Review. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2019.00617/full.

(11) The beneficial effects of metformin on cancer prevention and therapy: a …. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6497052/.

(12) Metformin suppresses the growth of colorectal cancer by … https://www.nature.com/articles/s41419-022-04649-4.

(13) Metformin in patients with and without diabetes: a paradigm shift in …. https://cardiab.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12933-019-0860-y.

(14) Effect of metformin on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in …. https://cardiab.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12933-019-0900-7.

(15) Metformin and Vascular Diseases: A Focused Review on Smooth Muscle Cell …. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227439/.

(16) Metformin: A Potential Candidate for Targeting Aging Mechanisms. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7990352/.

(17) Metformin in aging and aging-related diseases: clinical applications …. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8965502/.

(18) A Critical Review of the Evidence That Metformin Is a Putative Anti …. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34421827/.

(19) Metformin Treatment Linked to Slowed Cognitive Decline. https://neurosciencenews.com/metformin-cognitive-decline-17074/.

(20) Treatment linked to slowed cognitive decline | Garvan Institute of …. https://www.garvan.org.au/news-events/news/metformin-treatment-linked-to-slowed-cognitive-decline.

(21) Metformin treatment linked to slowed cognitive decline https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-09-metformin-treatment-linked-cognitive-decline.html.

(22) Type 2 diabetes increases and metformin reduces total … https://bmccancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2407-11-20.

(23) Metformin: A Potential Candidate for Targeting Aging Mechanisms. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33815878/.

(24) Metformin’s Mechanisms in Attenuating Hallmarks of Aging and Age …. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9286921/.

(1) Rapamycin has anti-aging effect on human skin https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/327150.

(2) Topical rapamycin reduces markers of senescence and aging in human skin …. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31761958/.

(3) Rapamycin may slow skin aging — ScienceDaily. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/11/191125131311.htm.

(4) Rapamycin for Anti-Aging: The Pros and Cons – by Brynna Connor, MD. https://www.northwestpharmacy.com/askthedoctor/rapamycin-for-anti-aging-the-pros-and-cons.

(5) Rapamycin regulates the balance between cardiomyocyte … https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31746373/.

(6) Rapamycin ameliorates brain damage and maintains … https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11011-022-01020-6.

(7) Longevity, aging and rapamycin – PubMed. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25015322/.

(8) Effect of rapamycin on aging and age-related diseases—past and future. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8190242/.

(9) Rapamycin for longevity: opinion article…. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6814615/.

(10) Cancer prevention with rapamycin – PubMed. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/37057884/.

(11) Rapamycin May Slow Skin Aging, Drexel Study Reports. https://drexel.edu/news/archive/2019/november/rapamycin-for-skin-aging.

(12) Rapamycin improves motor function, reduces 4-hydroxynonenal adducted …. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26306821/.

(13) Rapamycin Maintains the Brain’s Blood Flow, Suggests Mouse Study. https://www.technologynetworks.com/neuroscience/news/rapamycin-maintains-the-brains-blood-flow-suggests-mouse-study-326951.

(14) Mechanisms of Life Span Extension by Rapamycin in the Fruit Fly …. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2824086/.

(15) Effect of rapamycin on aging and age-related diseases—past … https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11357-020-00274-1.

(16) Rapamycin: Anti-Aging Benefits and Possible Side Effects. https://healthnews.com/longevity/longevity-supplements/rapamycin-anti-aging-benefits-possible-side-effects/.

(17) Rapamycin rejuvenates oral health in aging mice https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32342860/.

(18) Rapamycin rejuvenates oral health in aging mice https://elifesciences.org/articles/54318.

(1) NAD Supplements: Do They Help to Fight Aging? https://healthnews.com/longevity/longevity-supplements/nad-supplements-do-they-help-to-fight-aging/.

(2) NAD Supplement Benefits, Uses, Dosage and Side Effects. https://draxe.com/nutrition/nad-supplement/.

(3) NAD+ and The Importance of DNA Repair | IV Revival. https://ivrevival.com/nad-importance-of-dna-repair/.

(4) Ranking the best NAD+ supplements of 2023 – Body Nutrition. https://bodynutrition.org/best-nad/.

(5) Sobriety and Satiety: Is NAD+ the Answer? https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32423100/.

(6) NAD+, Vitamin B12 and Better Sleep. https://medium.com/illumination/nad-vitamin-b12-and-sleep-29c1cdfebcdb.

(7) The Key Role of NAD+ in Anti-Tumor Immune Response: An Update. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2021.658263/full.

(8) Mice with Heart Failure Benefit from Increasing NAD+ Levels https://www.nmn.com/news/boosting-nad-levels-improves-heart-function-in-mice-with-heart-failure.

(9) Clinical Evidence for Targeting NAD Therapeutically. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7558103/.

(10) NAD+ & Sleep | Increased NAD+ levels for better sleep – https://eternumlabs.com.au/increased-nad-levels-better-sleep/.

(11) How NAD+ Impacts Your Sleep – Frank Lipman MD. https://drfranklipman.com/2022/06/03/how-nad-impacts-your-sleep/.

(12) Nicotinamide Riboside: Benefits, Side Effects and Dosage https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/nicotinamide-riboside.

(13) NAD+: The convergence of DNA repair and mitophagy. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15548627.2016.1257467.

(14) Extracellular NAD+ enhances PARP-dependent DNA repair capacity … https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-57506-9.

(15) NAD+ administration profoundly decreases UVC-induced skin damage by …. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC10195211/.

(16) The evolving role of the NAD+/nicotinamide metabolome in skin … https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24794404/.

(17) NAD+ administration profoundly decreases UVC-induced skin damage by …. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/37216171/.

(18) NAD+helps weight loss without dieting. https://aging-matters.com/pill-helps-weight-loss-without-dieting/.

(19) How NAD+ Affects Body Weight and Overall Health. http://nadboosters.com/how-nad-affects-body-weight-and-overall-health/.

(20) How Increasing NAD+ May Protect Humans From Heart Failure –https://www.nmn.com/news/nad-may-protect-against-heart-failure-human.

(21) Therapeutic potential of NAD-boosting molecules: the. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6342515/.

(22) Targeting NAD+: is it a common strategy to delay heart aging?. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41420-022-01031-3.

(23) NAD+ metabolism, stemness, the immune response, and cancer | Signal …. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41392-020-00354-w.

(24) Study Shows NMN Enhances Activation of Cancer-Fighting Immune Cells. https://www.nmn.com/news/study-shows-nmn-enhances-cancer-preventing-immune-cell-activation.

(25) What is NAD+ Therapy? — http://www.nadplus.com/about-nadplus/2021/6/13/what-is-nad-therapy.

(26) Sobriety and Satiety: Is NAD+ the Answer? – National Center for …. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7278809/.

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